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Statement on Evidence Base for ABA interventions

Page history last edited by Regina Claypool-Frey 10 years, 4 months ago

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DISCLAIMER: The information on this site is presented on an "as is" basis, and does not claim to present definitive information, make recommendation or to represent any official body or organization. Users of this site agree that the owner of the site or authors of pages and articles are indemnified against legal liability


 

Applied Behavior Analysis and Neurodevelopmental Disorders:

Overview and Summary of Scientific Support

Annotated with links to articles and abstracts

 

Original article and citations

Authors: Louis P. Hagopian & Eric W. Boelter

The Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine


Applied Behavior Analysis Defined.

Behavior analysis is the systematic study of variables that influence behavior (Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991[1]). Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a discipline concerned with the application of behavioral science in real-world settings such as clinics or schools with the aim of addressing socially important issues such as behavior problems and learning (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968[2]). Procedures derived from the discipline of ABA have been implemented to assess and treat a broad range of behaviors with individuals diagnosed with intellectual and developmental disabilities. However, despite more than 40 years of applied behavior analytic research there continues to be misperceptions about ABA. One misperception is that ABA is a standardized treatment program that is used for a specific type of problem and with specific types of individuals. For example, some incorrectly believe that ABA is a type of therapy or a specific procedure for teaching children with autism, and that it is synonymous with “Lovaas Therapy” or “discrete trial training.” Although discrete trial training represents one type of ABA-based approach, the field of ABA is much broader and includes a range of tactics, methods, and procedures that have been shown to be effective for many different types of problems. Features common to all ABA-based approaches are the objective measurement of behavior, precise control of the environment, and use of procedures based on scientifically established principles of behavior. Any clinical procedure or research investigation adhering to these basic criteria can be considered to be an ABA-based procedure. This includes “functional behavioral assessment,” and approaches such as “Positive Behavioral Support,” and forms of “Behavior Therapy” that rely on direct observation of behavior and analysis of behavior-environment relations.

 

Scientific Support for Applied Behavior Analysis.

Over the past 40 years a large body of literature has shown the successful use of ABA-based procedures to reduce problem behavior and increase appropriate skills for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), autism, and related disorders. Several review articles and meta-analyses have been published summarizing this large body of literature. Six of these articles (DeMyer, Hingtgen, & Jackson,1981[3]; Herbert, Sharp, & Gaudiano, 2002[4]; Hingtgen & Bryson, 1972[5]; Kahng, Iwata, & Lewin, 2002[6]; Matson, Benavidiz, Compton, Paclawskyj, & Baglio, 1996[7]; Sturmey, 2002[8]) collectively reviewed thousands of published studies spanning the years 1946 to 2001. Each of these reviews supported efficacy of ABA-based procedures in the assessment and treatment of problem behavior associated with autism, mental retardation, and related disorders. Similarly, three meta-analyses (Didden, Duker, & Korzilius, 1997[9]; Lundervold & Bourland, 1988[10]; Weisz, Weiss, Han, Granger, & Morton, 1995[11]) that collectively analyzed hundreds of studies published between 1968 and 1994 concluded that treatments based on operant principles of learning were more effective for reducing problem behavior displayed by individuals with ID as well as typically-developing individuals than were alternative treatments. The large body of literature reviewed in these studies provides empirical evidence indicating that procedures developed using ABA-based principles are effective at assessing and treating a variety of socially important behaviors engaged in by individuals with a variety of diagnoses. Furthermore, ABA-based approaches for educating children with autism and related disorders have been extensively researched and empirically supported (e.g., Howard, Sparkman, Choen, Green, & Stanislaw, 2005[12]; Koegel, Koegel, & Harrower, 1999[13]; Krantz & McClannahan, 1998[14]; Lovaas,1987[15]; McGee, Morrier, & Daly, 1999[16]; Strain & Kohler, 1998[17]).

 

Application of ABA-Based Procedures Across Settings and Populations. ABA-based procedures have been implemented across

a variety of settings including

  • hospitals (e.g., Iwata, et al., 1994[18]),
  • schools (e.g., Boyajian, DuPaul, Handler, Eckert, & McGoey, 2001[19]; Northup et al., 1997[20]), and
  • homes (e.g., Derby, et al. 1997[21]; Harding et al., 1999[22]);
  •  

across a variety of forms of problem behavior including

  • self-injurious behavior (e.g., Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994[23]; Kahng, Iwata, & Lewin, 2002[24]),
  • aggression (e.g., DeLeon, Fisher, Herman, & Crosland, 2000[25]; Oliver, Oxener, Hearn, & Hall, 2001.[26]),
  • stereotypic behavior (e.g., Ahearn, Clark, DeBar, & Florentino, 2005[27]; Durand & Carr, 1987[28]; Rapp, Vollmer, St. Peter, Dozier, & Cotnoir, 2004[29]), and
  • pica (e.g., Hagopian, & Adelinis, 2001[30]; McCord, Grosser, Iwata, & Powers, 2005[31]; Piazza, Roane, Keeney, Boney, & Abt, 2002[32]).

Additionally, ABA-based procedures have been employed to  

establish and increase adaptive behaviors as alternatives to problem behavior including

  • communication (e.g., Carr & Durand, 1985[33]; Durand, & Carr, 1992[34]; Hagopian, Fisher, Sullivan, Acquisto, & LeBlanc, 1998[35]; Wacker et al., 1990[36]),
  • daily living skills (e.g., Cuvo, Jacobi, & Sipko, 1981[37]; Horner & Keilitz, 1975[38]), and
  • academic skills (e.g., Daly & Martens, 1994[39]; McComas, Wacker, & Cooper, 1996[40]).

 

ABA-based procedures have also been used with individuals with a  

variety of diagnoses including,

  • schizophrenia (e.g., Wilder, Masuda, O'Connor, & Baham, 2001[41]),
  • mental retardation (e.g., Lindauer, Zarcone, Richman, & Schroeder, 2002[42]; Saunders, McEntee, & Saunders, 2005[43]),
  • autism (e.g., Hoch, McComas, Thompson, & Paone, 2002[44]; Lerman, Vorndran, Addison, & Kuhn, 2004[45]; Lovaas et al. 1987[46]),
  • attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (e.g., Northup et al. 1997[47]),
  • stereotypic movement disorder with self-injury (e.g., Kahng, Iwata, & Lewin, 2002[48]; Smith, Iwata, Goh, & Shore, 1995[49]),
  • Down Syndrome (e.g., Dalton, Rubino, & Hislop, 1973[50]), and
  • pediatric feeding disorders (e.g., Cooper et al., 1995[51]; Kerwin, Ahearn, Eicher, & Burd, 1995[52]; Piazza, et al., 2003[53]).

 

Scientific, Professional, and Government Organizations’ Position on Applied Behavior Analysis.

Based on the empirical evidence, many scientific, government, and professional agencies and organizations have concluded that ABA-based procedures represent best practices for individuals with autism and mental retardation. For example, the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (formerly the American Association on Mental Retardation), the oldest and largest interdisciplinary organization of professionals concerned with mental retardation and related disabilities, designated ABA-based procedures for the treatment of behavioral problems with individuals with mental retardation and related disorders as “highly recommended” (their highest rating). Based on the scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of ABA-based procedures for treating problems associated with mental retardation and autism, various scientific organizations have concluded that ABA-based procedures are highly effective, including:

 

 

Various Government agencies have also advocated for the use of ABA-based procedures – particularly for individuals with mental retardation and autism who display problem behavior.

 

For example, in 1999 a report on mental health prepared by the Surgeon General of the United States stated, “Thirty years of research demonstrated the efficacy of applied behavioral methods in reducing inappropriate behavior and in increasing communication, learning, and appropriate social behavior.” Government agencies supporting the use of ABA-based procedures include:

 

 

Empirically Supported Treatments for Problems Associated with Mental Retardation, Autism and Related Disorders.

 

Several academic and trade journals that represent specific medical disciplines have published articles indicating that treatments for autism and mental retardation derived from ABA-based procedures are empirically supported treatments. For example, the journal Current Opinion in Psychiatry is a current opinion journal with the goal of assisting clinicians and researchers in keeping up-to-date with the large amount of information published in psychiatry. An article reviewing literature on the assessment and treatment of individuals with mental retardations and psychiatric disorders concluded that: “Interventions based on applied behavior analysis have the strongest empirical basis, although there is some evidence that other therapies have promise.” (Sturmey, 2002). Also, in the Journal Pediatrics, the official journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, an article offering guidelines on scientifically supported treatments for childhood psychiatric disorders concluded: “The most efficacious psychosocial treatment for autism is applied behavior analysis...” (Lilienfeld, 2005). Discipline-specific journals that have published articles indicating that ABA-based procedures are empirically supported include:

 

  • Current Opinion in Psychiatry (Grey & Hastings, 2005; Sturmey, 2002)
  • Pediatrics (Lilienfeld , 2005)
  • Psychiatric Times (Erickson, Swiezy, Stigler, McDougle, & Posey, 2005)
  • Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice (Herbert, Sharp, & Gaudiano, 2002)

 

Furthermore, in 1993 Division 12 of the American Psychological Association developed guidelines for what defined an Empirically Supported Treatment (EST). Regarding ESTs based on single-case design research these guidelines state: “A large series of single-case design experiments must demonstrate efficacy with, (a) use of good experimental design and (b) comparison of intervention to another treatment.” (Chambless & Ollendick, 2001). Based on these criteria, ABA-based behavioral treatments have been defined as ESTs for individuals with developmental disabilities (Chambless, et al, 1996).

 

Legislative Rulings in Support of Funding and Access to ABA-Based Services.

Finally, multiple legislative rulings have supported the efficacy of ABA-based approaches for addressing both problem behaviors associated with MR and autism, as well as for educational instruction. Landmark decisions have been made by the

and when ruling on a case involving the use of ABA-based treatment for children with autism the  

 

 

REFERENCES

References for Applied Behavioral Analysis: Overview and Summary of Scientific Support

 

  1. Ahearn, W.H., Clark, K.M., DeBar, R., & Florentino, C., (2005). On the role of preference in response competition. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 247-250.
  2. Baer, D.M., Wolf, M.M., & Risley, T.R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91-97.
  3. Boyajian, A.E., DuPaul, G.J., Handler, M.W., Eckert, T.L., & McGoey, K.E. (2001). The use of classroom-based brief functional analyses with preschoolers at-risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. School Psychology Review, 30(2), 278-293.
  4. Carr, E. G., & Durand, V. M. (1985). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 111-126.
  5. Chambless, D.L., & Ollendick, T.H. (2001). Empirically supported psychological interventions: controversies and evidence. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 685-716.
  6. Chambless, D.L., Sanderson, W.C., Shoham, V., Johnson, S.B., Pope, K.S., Crits-Christoph, P., Baker, M., Johnson, B., Woody, S.R., Sue, S., Beutler, L., Williams, D.A., & McCurry, S. (1996). An Update on Empirically Validated Therapies. Retrieved November 7, 2005, from the American Psychological Association Division 12 (Clinical Psychology) website at http://www.apa.org/divisions/div12/est/newrpt.pdf
  7. Cooper, L. J., Wacker, D. P., McComas, J. J., Brown, K., Peck, S. M., Richman, D., Drew, J., Frischmeyer, P., & Millard, T. (1995). Use of component analyses to identify active variables in treatment packages for children with feeding disorders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 139-153.
  8. Cuvo, A. J., Jacobi, L., & Sipko, R. (1981). Teaching laundry skills to mentally retarded students. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 16, 54-64.
  9. Dalton, A. J., Rubino, C. A., & Hislop, M. W. (1973). Some effects of token rewards on school achievement of children with Down's syndrome. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 251-259.
  10. Daly, E. J., III, & Martens, B. K. (1994). A comparison of three interventions for increasing oral reading performance: Application of the instructional hierarchy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 459-469.
  11. DeLeon, I. G., Fisher, W. W., Herman, K. M., & Crosland, K. C. (2000). Assessment of a response bias for aggression over functionally equivalent appropriate behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 73-77.
  12. DeMyer, M. K., Hingtgen, J., & Jackson, R. (1981). Infantile autism reviewed: A decade of research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 7, 388 - 451.
  13. Derby, K. M., Wacker, D. P., Berg, W., DeRaad, A., Ulrich, S., Asmus, J., Harding, J., Prouty, A., Laffey, P., & Stoner, E. A. (1997). The long-term effects of functional communication training in home settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 507-531.
  14. Didden, R., Duker, P. C., & Korzilius, H. (1997). Meta-analytic study on treatment effectiveness for problem behaviors with individuals who have mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 101(4), 387-399.
  15. Durand, V. M., & Carr, E. G. (1987). Social influences on “self-stimulatory” behavior: Analysis and treatment application. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 119-132.
  16. Durand, V. M, & Carr, E. G. (1992). An analysis of maintenance following functional communication training.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 777-794.
  17. Erickson, C.A.., Swiezy, N.B., Stigler, K.A., McDougle, C.J., & Posey, D.J., (2005). Behavioral and Pharmacologic Treatment of Aggression in Children With Autism. Psychiatric Times, 22.
  18. Grey, I.M., & Hastings, R.P. (2005). Evidence-based practices in intellectual disability and behavior disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18, 469-475.
  19. Hagopian, L. P., & Adelinis, J. D. (2001). Response blocking with and without redirection for the treatment of pica. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 527-530.
  20. Hagopian, L.P., Fisher, W.W., Sullivan, M.T. Acquisto, J., & LeBlanc, L. A. (1998). Effectiveness of functional communication training with and without extinction and punishment: A summary of 21 inpatient cases. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 211-235.
  21. Harding, J.W., Wacker, D.P., Berg, W.K., Cooper, L.J., Asmus, J., Mlela, K., & Muller, J. (1999). An analysis of choice making in the assessment of young children with severe behavior problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 63-82.
  22. Herbert, J.D., Sharp, I.R., & Gaudiano, B.A., (2002). Separating fact from fiction in the etiology and treatment of autism: A scientific review of the evidence. Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice, 1, 23-43.
  23. Hingtgen, J. N. & Bryson, C. Q. (1972). Recent developments in the study of early childhood psychoses: Infantile autism, childhood schizophrenia, and related disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 5, 8-54.
  24. Hoch, H., McComas, J. J., Thompson, A. L., & Paone, D. (2002). Concurrent reinforcement schedules: Behavior change and maintenance without extinction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35, 155-169.
  25. Horner, R. D., & Keilitz, I. (1975). Training mentally retarded adolescents to brush their teeth. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 301-309.
  26. Howard, J.S., Sparkman, C.R., Cohen, H.G., Green, G., Stanislaw, H. (2005). A comparison of intensive behavior analytic and eclectic treatments for young children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26, 359-383.
  27. Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M. F., Slifer, K. J., Bauman, K. E., & Richman, G. S. (1994). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 197-209. (Reprinted from Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 3-20, 1982).
  28. Iwata, B. A., Pace, G. M., Dorsey, M. F., Zarcone, J. R., Vollmer, T. R., Smith R. G., et al. (1994). The functions of self-injurious behavior: An experimental-epidemiological analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 215-240.
  29. Kahng, S., Iwata, B.A., & Lewin, A. (2002). Behavioral Treatment of Self-Injury, 1964 to 2000. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 107, 212–221.
  30. Kerwin, M. E., Ahearn, W. H., Eicher, P. S., & Burd, D. M. (1995). The costs of eating: A behavioral economic analysis of food refusal. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 245-260.
  31. Koegel, L.K., Koegel, R.L., & Harrower, J.K. (1999). Pivotal response intervention I: Overview of approach. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24(3), 174-185.
  32. Krantz, P. J., & McClannahan, L. E. (1998). Social interaction skills for children with autism: A script fading procedure for beginning readers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31(2), 191-202.
  33. Lerman, D.C., Vorndran, C., Addison, L., & Kuhn, S.A.C. (2004). A rapid assessment of skills in young children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 11-26.
  34. Lilienfeld, S.O. (2005). Scientifically unsupported and supported interventions for childhood psychopathology:A summary. Pediatrics, 115, 761-764.
  35. Lindauer, S. E., Zarcone, J. R., Richman, D. M., & Schroeder, S. R. (2002). A comparison of multiple reinforcer assessments to identify the function of maladaptive behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35, 299-303.
  36. Lovaas, O. I., (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3-9.
  37. Lundervold, D. & Bourland, G. (1988). Quantitative analysis of treatment of aggression, self-injury, and property destruction. Behavior Modification, 12(4), 590-617.
  38. Matson, J., Benavidiz, D., Compton, L., Paclawskyj, T. & Baglio, C. (1996). Behavioral treatment of autistic persons: A review of research from 1980 to present. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 17, 433 - 465.
  39. McComas, J. J., Wacker, D. P., & Cooper, L. J. (1996). Experimental analysis of academic performance in a classroom setting. Journal of Behavioral Education, 6, 191-201.
  40. McCord, B.E., Grosser, J.W., Iwata, B.A., & Powers, L.A. (2005). An analysis of response-blocking parameters in the prevention of pica. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 391-394.
  41. McGee, G.G., Morrier, M.J., & Daly, T. (1999). An incidental teaching approach to early intervention for toddlers with autism. Journal of the Association for the Severely Handicapped, 24, 133-146.
  42. Northup, J., Jones, K., Broussard, C., DiGiovanni, G., Herring, M., Fusilier, I., & Hanchey, A. (1997). A preliminary analysis of interactive effects between common classroom contingencies and methylphenidate. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 30, 121-125.
  43. Oliver, C., Oxener, G., Hearn, M., & Hall, S. (2001). Effects of social proximity on multiple aggressive behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 85-88.
  44. Piazza, C. C., Fisher, W. W., Brown, K. A., Shore, B. A., Patel, M. R., Katz, R. M., Sevin, B., M. Gulotta, C. S., & Blakely-Smith, A. (2003). Functional analysis of inappropriate mealtime behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 36, 187-204.
  45. Piazza, C. C., Roane, H. S., Keeney, K. M., Boney, B. R., & Abt, K. A. (2002). Varying response effort in the treatment of pica maintained by automatic reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35, 233-246.
  46. Rapp, J.T., Vollmer, T.R., St. Peter, C., Dozier, C.L., & Cotnoir, N.M. (2004). Analysis of response allocation in individuals with multiple forms of stereotyped behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 481-501.
  47. Saunders, R.R., McEntee, J.E., & Saunders, M.D. (2005). Interaction of reinforcement schedules, a behavioral prosthesis, and work-related behavior in adults with mental retardation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 163-176.
  48. Smith, R. G., Iwata, B. A., Goh, H. L., & Shore, B. A. (1995). Analysis of establishing operations for self-injury maintained by escape. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 515-535.
  49. Strain, P.S., & Kohler, F.W. (1998). Peer-mediated social intervention for young children with autism. Seminars in Speech and Language, 19, 391-405.
  50. Sturmey, P. (2002). Mental retardation and concurrent psychiatric disorder: assessment and treatment. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 15(5),489-495.
  51. Sulzer-Azaroff, B. & Mayer, R. (1991). Behavior analysis for lasting change. Fort Worth, TX: Holt, Reinhart & Winston, Inc.
  52. Wacker, D. P., Steege, M. W., Northup, J., Sasso, G., Berg, W., Reimers, T., Cooper, L., Cigrand, K., & Donn, L. (1990). A component analysis of functional communication training across three topographies of severe behavior problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 417-429.
  53. Weisz, J.R., Weiss, B., Han, S.S., Granger, D.A., & Morton, T. (1995). Effects of Psychotherapy With Children and Adolescents Revisited: A Meta-Analysis of Treatment Outcome Studies Psychological Bulletin, 117, (3), 450-468.
  54. Wilder, D. A., Masuda, A., O'Connor, C., & Baham, M. (2001). Brief functional analysis and treatment of bizarre vocalizations in an adult with schizophrenia. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 65-68.

 

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Court ruling citations (specific citations to be added)

(In progress)

 

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Related: Empirically-Validated treatments--APA Division 12

The Empirically-Validated Treatments Movement: A Practitioner Perspective

Ronald F. Levant, Ed.D., J.D.

(President-Elect, American Psychological Association)

 

An Update on Empirically Validated Therapies

 

Chamberless, D.L. et. al. (1998). Update on Empirically Validated Therapies, II. The Clinical Psychologist, 51(1), 3-16.

Backup/draft version

Update on Empirically Validated Therapies, II

 

MANUAL FOR EMPIRICALLY SUPPORTED TREATMENTS: 1998 UPDATE

Sheila R. Woody, PhD & William C. Sanderson, PhD (Editors)

 

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2/17/08

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Footnotes

  1. Sulzer-Azaroff, B. & Mayer, R. (1991). Behavior analysis for lasting change. Fort Worth, TX: Holt, Reinhart & Winston, Inc.
  2. # Baer, D.M., Wolf, M.M., & Risley, T.R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91-97.
  3. # DeMyer, M. K., Hingtgen, J., & Jackson, R. (1981). Infantile autism reviewed: A decade of research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 7, 388 - 451.
  4. # Herbert, J.D., Sharp, I.R., & Gaudiano, B.A., (2002). Separating fact from fiction in the etiology and treatment of autism: A scientific review of the evidence. Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice, 1, 23-43.
  5. Hingtgen, J. N. & Bryson, C. Q. (1972). Recent developments in the study of early childhood psychoses: Infantile autism, childhood schizophrenia, and related disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 5, 8-54.
  6. Kahng, S., Iwata, B.A., & Lewin, A. (2002). Behavioral Treatment of Self-Injury, 1964 to 2000. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 107, 212–221.
  7. # Matson, J., Benavidiz, D., Compton, L., Paclawskyj, T. & Baglio, C. (1996). Behavioral treatment of autistic persons: A review of research from 1980 to present. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 17, 433 - 465.
  8. Sturmey, P. (2002). Mental retardation and concurrent psychiatric disorder: assessment and treatment. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 15(5),489-495.
  9. # Didden, R., Duker, P. C., & Korzilius, H. (1997). Meta-analytic study on treatment effectiveness for problem behaviors with individuals who have mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 101(4), 387-399.
  10. # Lundervold, D. & Bourland, G. (1988). Quantitative analysis of treatment of aggression, self-injury, and property destruction. Behavior Modification, 12(4), 590-617.
  11. Weisz, J.R., Weiss, B., Han, S.S., Granger, D.A., & Morton, T. (1995). Effects of Psychotherapy With Children and Adolescents Revisited: A Meta-Analysis of Treatment Outcome Studies Psychological Bulletin, 117, (3), 450-468.
  12. # Howard, J.S., Sparkman, C.R., Cohen, H.G., Green, G., Stanislaw, H. (2005). A comparison of intensive behavior analytic and eclectic treatments for young children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26, 359-383.
  13. Koegel, L.K., Koegel, R.L., & Harrower, J.K. (1999). Pivotal response intervention I: Overview of approach. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24(3), 174-185.
  14. # Krantz, P. J., & McClannahan, L. E. (1998). Social interaction skills for children with autism: A script fading procedure for beginning readers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31(2), 191-202.
  15. # Lovaas, O. I., (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3-9.
  16. McGee, G.G., Morrier, M.J., & Daly, T. (1999). An incidental teaching approach to early intervention for toddlers with autism. Journal of the Association for the Severely Handicapped, 24, 133-146.
  17. Strain, P.S., & Kohler, F.W. (1998). Peer-mediated social intervention for young children with autism. Seminars in Speech and Language, 19, 391-405.
  18. # Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M. F., Slifer, K. J., Bauman, K. E., & Richman, G. S. (1994). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 197-209. (Reprinted from Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 3-20, 1982).
  19. Boyajian, A.E., DuPaul, G.J., Handler, M.W., Eckert, T.L., & McGoey, K.E. (2001). The use of classroom-based brief functional analyses with preschoolers at-risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. School Psychology Review, 30(2), 278-293.
  20. # Northup, J., Jones, K., Broussard, C., DiGiovanni, G., Herring, M., Fusilier, I., & Hanchey, A. (1997). A preliminary analysis of interactive effects between common classroom contingencies and methylphenidate. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 30, 121-125.
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