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Statement on Evidence Base for ABA Interventions with links to cited articles.
Adapted from "Applied Behavior Analysis and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Overview and Summary of Scientific Support"
Authors: Louis P. Hagopian & Eric W. Boelter
The Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Q: Are applications of ABA appropriate for older children or children over 5?
A: Yes! Because of the widespread use of behavioral interventions for very young children with developmental disabilities, many people have either forgotten, or don't realize, that many tactics and programming from ABA were actually first studied with school age children, adolescents and adults.
To some extent it was a happy historical accident to find that these applications worked so successfully for young children, but that does not discount the fact that these discoveries often occurred in the older populations first, and that depending on a student or client's needs and level, that these applications are equally, if not more, useful for these older children and adults.
Educating Children with Autism (2001)
Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Chapter: Adaptive Behaviors pp103-114.
Adaptive behavior refers to a personâ€™s social responsibility and independent performance of daily activities. One of the first publications of intervention with a child with autism was an application of then new behavior analysis procedures to the problem of teaching a young boy to wear his glasses (Wolf et al., 1964). Since that time, behavioral interventions have been applied to building a wide variety of adaptive skills with varied populations of children and adults with developmental disabilities...There has been an assumption that behavioral interventions documented as effective in teaching adaptive skills to adults with developmental disabilities will apply equally well to child populations...Similarly, faded guidance procedures that were evaluated for teaching adolescents with disabilities to brush their teeth (Horner and Keilitz, 1975) bear marked resemblance to procedures described for teaching independent daily living skills to toddlers with autism (McGee et al., 1999). In other words, many procedures for teaching self-care skills to adults with mental retardation have been extended to younger children..."
Two important recent studies were that of Eikeseth, et al., 2002, 2007 (citations below) that demonstrated that even children who received a relatively late start (ages 4-7, mean age 5 years 5 months) on intensive behavioral interventions were able to demonstrate significant and important gains at followup (mean age of 8 years, 2 months), and that it was the method of intervention that was responsible.
"(2002) ...Results suggest that some 4- to 7-year-olds may make large gains with intensive behavioral treatment, that such treatment can be successfully implemented in school settings, and that specific aspects of behavioral treatment (not just its intensity) may account for favorable outcomes...
(2007) This study extends findings on the effects of intensive applied behavior analytic treatment for children with autism who began treatment at a mean age of 5.5 years. The behavioral treatment group (n = 13, 8 boys) was compared to an eclectic treatment group (n = 12, 11 boys). Assignment to groups was made independently based on the availability of qualified supervisors. Both behavioral and eclectic treatment took place in public kindergartens and elementary schools for typically developing children. At a mean age of 8 years, 2 months, the behavioral treatment group showed larger increases in IQ and adaptive functioning than did the eclectic group. The behavioral treatment group also displayed fewer aberrant behaviors and social problems at follow-up. Results suggest that behavioral treatment was effective for children with autism in the study."
In October 2007, a practice parameter was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics,
Myers, S.M. & Pauche Johnson, C. (2007). Management of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120, 1162-1182. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-2362. Accessed April 16, 2008.
which states on page 1166, under EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS,
"Programs for Older Children and Adolescents
Some model programs provide programming throughout childhood and into adulthood.(11) More commonly, the focus of specialized programs is on early childhood, and published research evaluating comprehensive educational programs for older children and adolescents with ASDs is lacking. However, there is empirical support for the use of certain educational strategies, particularly those that are based on ABA, across all age groups to increase and maintain desirable adaptive behaviors, reduce interfering maladaptive behaviors or narrow the conditions under which they occur, teach new skills, and generalize behaviors to new environments or situations.(13, 21,28)..."
Below are some citations which note the ages of the students studied in the papers. As one may well note, many of these papers illustrate familiar and widely used techniques. It is not an exhaustive list, but provides example. There is no doubt that as the current children and teens age up that ongoing research and publications will continue to add elaboration and refinements to behavior-analytic interventions to the adolescent and adult population with autism.
In addition there are also some findings in neurology reporting that suggest that there may be more neurologic flexibility and developmental capability that has been believed in the past.
For these reasons, yes--applications of ABA are very appropriate for older children beyond the early intervention years.
Some references of ABA applications relevant to, or originally studied in school-aged children, adolescents or adults with autism.
Bold are available in open access full text.
Regular links to abstract; available in article for purchase or institutional subscription.
(2000, March) Beyond early intervention: Brain growth in teens study disputes old assumptions.
Describes dramatic anatomical brain changes into teens that challenges assumptions about changes only before the age of 6.
Blew, P.A., Schwartz, I.S., & Luce, S.C. (1985). Teaching functional community skills to autistic children using nonhandicapped peer tutors.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 18(4), 337-342. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1985.18-337
Student ages 8, 5.
Brookman, L., Boettcher, M., Klein, E., Openden, D., Koegel, R. L., & Koegel, L. K. (2003). Facilitating social interactions in a community summer camp setting for children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(4), 249-252. DOI: 10.1177/10983007030050040801
Capella, M., Roessler, R. T., & Hemmerla, K. M. (2002). Work-related skills awareness in high-school students with disabilities. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 33(2), 17-23.
Carr, E.G., Binkoff, A., Kologinsky, E., & Eddy, M. (1978). Acquisition of sign language by autistic children. I: Expressive labelling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11(4), 489-501. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1978.11-489.
Student ages: 15, 14, 10 years.
NB--These were institutionalized, non vocal students who had previously received 1-3 years speech language training without developing reliable echoic ability
Carr, E.G., & Kologinsky,E. (1983). Acquisition of sign language by autistic children. II: Spontaneity and generalization effects.. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16(3), 297-314. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1983.16-297.
Student ages: 9, 11, 14
Charlop, M.H. (1983). The effects of echolalia on acquisition and generalization of receptive labeling in autistic children.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 16(1), 111-127. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1983.16-111.
Student ages 11.7, 7, 10.8, 18,8 and 5 years
Charlop, M.H., Kurtz, P.F., & Casey, F.G. (1990). Using aberrant behaviors as reinforcers for autistic children.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23(2), 163-182. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1990.23-163.
Student ages: 6.3, 7.6, 8.5, 7.0 years
Charlop, M.H., Kurtz, P.F., & Milstein, J.P. (1992). Too much reinforcement, too little behavior: Assessing task interspersal procedures in conjunction with different reinforcement schedules with autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(4), 795-808. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1992.25-795.
Student ages: 4.4, 5.0, 5.3, 6.2, 6.4 years
Charlop, M.H., & Milstein, J.P. (1989). Teaching autistic children conversational speech using video modeling.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 22(3), 275-286. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1989.22-275.
Student ages: 7.6, 6.10, 7.10 years old
Charlop, M.H., Schreibman, L., & Thibodeau, M.G. (1985). Increasing spontaneous verbal responding in autistic children using a time delay procedure.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18(2), 155-166. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1985.18-155.
Student ages: 10.9, 6.3, 11.5, 6.3, 6.5, 5.1, 6.9 years; (7 students, X=7.6 yrs.)
Charlop, M.H., & Trasowech, J.E., (1991). Increasing autistic children's daily spontaneous speech.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 24(4), 747-761. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1991.24-747.
Student ages: 7.9, 8.7, 7.11 years
Charlop, M.H., & Walsh, M.E. (1986). Increasing autistic children's spontaneous verbalizations of affection: An assessment of time delay and peer modelling procedures.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19(3), 307-314. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1986.19-307.
Student ages: 6.0, 8.9, 7.11, 8.6 years
Delano, M.E. (2007). Improving written language performance of adolescents with asperger syndrome. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(2), 345-351. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2007.50-06.
Student ages: 13.6, 15.11, 17.4
Donley, C. (2003, Spring). A success story of an adult with autistic characteristics.Autism and Related Developmental Disabilities Special Group Newsletter, 19(2), 1-4.
Dunlap, G. (1984). The influence of task variation and maintenance tasks on the learning and affect of autistic children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 37(1), 41-46. doi:10.1016/0022-0965(84)90057-2
Dunlap, G., & Koegel, R.L. (1980). Motivating autistic children through stimulus variation.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13(4), 619-627. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1980.13-619.
Student ages: 7.3, 5.3 years
Dunlap, G., Dyer, K., & Koegel, R.L. (1983). Autistic self-stimulation and intertrial interval duration. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 88(2), 194-202.
Dunlap, G., & Johnson, J. (1985). Increasing the independent responding of autistic children with unpredictable supervision.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 18(3), 227-236. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1985.18-227.
Student ages: 5.3, 12.3, 6.9 years
Dunlap, G., Koegel, R.L., Johnson, J., & O'Neill, R.E. (1987). Maintaining performance of autistic clients in community settings with delayed contingencies.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 20(2), 185-192. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1987.20-185.
Student ages: 6.9, 6.2, 17.2 years
Durand, V. M., & Crimmins, D. B. (1987). Assessment and treatment of psychotic speech in an autistic child. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17(1), 17-28.
Student age: 9 years old
ABSTRACT: The psychotic speech of autistic and other developmentally disabled children can be defined as words or phrases that are intelligible, but appear out of context. In the present investigation we conducted an analysis of the psychotic speech of a 9-year-old autistic boy. Three experiments were constructed to determine the functional significance of this child's psychotic speech and a method of intervention. The first study involved an analysis of the role of adult attention and task demands in the maintenance of psychotic speech. When task demands were increased, the frequency of psychotic speech increased. Varying adult attention had no effect on psychotic speech. We then performed a second analysis in which the consequence for psychotic speech was a 10-second time-out. Psychotic speech increased, suggesting that it may have been maintained through escape from task demands. Finally, the third experiment involved teaching an appropriate escape response ("Help me"). Psychotic speech was greatly reduced by this intervention. Thus, teaching an appropriate equivalent phrase proved to be a viable alternative to interventions using aversive consequences. The present study represents the first observation that psychotic speech may serve to remove children from unpleasant situations and also introduces a nonaversive intervention for this behavior.
Dyer, K. I. (1987). The competition of autistic stereotyped behavior with usual and specially assessed reinforcers. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 8(4), 607-626. DOI: 10.1016/0891-4222(87)90056-4
ABSTRACT:This study was conducted to empirically assess a reinforcement theory of stereotyped behavior. Six students with autism were first presented with tasks, and no contingent reinforcers were provided for correct responding. Then, contingent reinforcers that were typically used with the students (usual reinforcers) were presented in a multiple baseline across subjects design. Three of the students evidenced decreases in stereotypy and increases in responding in the presence of usual reinforcers. The other three students required external suppression of stereotypy before increases in responding were shown. For these students, usual reinforcers and specially assessed reinforcers were then compared. The specially assessed reinforcers resulted in decreases in stereotypy and increases in responding and subjective measures of responsiveness. The results were discussed in terms of supporting a competing reinforcement hypothesis, such that powerful external reinforcers will successfully compete with and suppress reinforcers provided by stereotypy.
Dyer, K., Christian, W.P., & Luce, S.C. (1982). The role of response delay in improving the discrimination performance of autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15(2) , 231-240. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1982.15-231.
Student ages: 13, 13, 14 years
Egel, A. L., Richman, G. S., & Koegel, R. L. (1981). Normal peer models and autistic children's learning.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14(1), 3-12. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1981.14-3.
Student ages: 5.0, 6.2, 7.1, 7.9 years
Eikeseth, S., Smith, T., Jahr, E., & Eldevik, S. (2002). Intensive behavioral treatment at school for 4- to 7-year-old children with autism: A 1-year comparison controlled study.
Behavior Modification, 26(1), 49-68 DOI: 10.1177/0145445502026001004
Student ages: 4-7, mean=5.5 years
...Results suggest that some 4- to 7-year-olds may make large gains with intensive behavioral treatment, that such treatment can be successfully implemented in school settings, and that specific aspects of behavioral treatment (not just its intensity) may account for favorable outcomes...
Eikeseth, S., Smith, T., Jahr, E., & Eldevik, S. (2007).Outcome for children with autism who began intensive behavioral treatment Between Ages 4 and 7. Behavior Modification, 31(3), 264-278. DOI: 10.1177/0145445506291396
Student ages: mean age at followup - 8.2
This study extends findings on the effects of intensive applied behavior analytic treatment for children with autism who began treatment at a mean age of 5.5 years. The behavioral treatment group (n = 13, 8 boys) was compared to an eclectic treatment group (n = 12, 11 boys). Assignment to groups was made independently based on the availability of qualified supervisors. Both behavioral and eclectic treatment took place in public kindergartens and elementary schools for typically developing children. At a mean age of 8 years, 2 months, the behavioral treatment group showed larger increases in IQ and adaptive functioning than did the eclectic group. The behavioral treatment group also displayed fewer aberrant behaviors and social problems at follow-up. Results suggest that behavioral treatment was effective for children with autism in the study.
Foxx, R.M. & Azrin, N.H. (1973). The elimination of autistic self-stimulatory behavior by overcorrection.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6(1), 1-14. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1973.6-1.
Student ages: 8, 7, 8, 7 years
Gaylord-Ross, R.J., Haring, T.G., Breen, C., & Pitts-Conway, V. (1984). The training and generalization of social interaction skills with autistic youth.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17(2), 229-248. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1984.17-229.
Student ages: 20, 17 years
Gena, A., Krantz, P., McClannahan, L.E., & Poulson, C.L. (1996). Training and generalization of affective behavior displayed by youth with autism.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29(3), 291-304. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1996.29-291.
Student ages: 11.4 - 18.11 years
Handleman, J.S. (1979). Generalization by autistic-type children of verbal responses across settings.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12(2), 273-282. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1979.12-273.
Student ages: 6 - 7 years (4 students)
Haring, T.G. & Breen, C.G. (1992). A peer-mediated social network intervention to enhance the social integration of persons with moderate and severe disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(2), 319-333. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1992.25-319.
Students ages: 13, 13 (2 students)
Haring, T.G., Kennedy, C.H., Adams, M.J., & Pitts-Conway, V. (1987). Teaching generalization of purchasing skills across community settings using videotape modeling.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20(1), 89-96. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1987.20-89.
Student ages: 20, 20, 20 years
Harris, S.L. & Handleman, J.S. (2000). Age and IQ at intake as predictors of placement for young children with autism: A four- to six-year follow-up.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 30(2), 137-142. doi: 10.1023/A:1005459606120
From abstract "...It is also emphasized that older children and those with lower IQs in the present study showed measurable gains in IQ from treatment. The data should not be taken to suggest that children older than 4 years of age do not merit high quality treatment..."
Harris, S. L. Handleman, J. S. & Alessandri, M. (1990). Teaching youths with autism to offer assistance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23(3), 297-305. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1990.23-297.
Student ages: 13, 14, 13
Horner, R. H., Day, H. M. & Day, J. R. (1997). Using neutralizing routines to reduce problem behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(4), 601-614. doi:10.1901/jaba.1997.30-601.
Student ages: 12, 17, 14. Students with significant cognitive disability.
Ingenmey, R., & Van Houten, R. (1991). Using time delay to promote spontaneous speech in an autistic child.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(3), 591-596. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1991.24-591.
Student ages: 18, 18, 18, 19 (NB. all students with MR; 1 with Down Syndrome, 1 with Fragile X, and 1 with Cerebral Palsy)
Kamps, D.M., Barbetta, P.M., Leonard, B.R., & Delquadri, J., (1994). Classwide peer tutoring: An integration strategy to improve reading skills and promote peer interactions among students with autism and general education peers.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(1), 49-61. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1994.27-49.
Student ages: 8, 8, 9 years
(NB-These students were full IQ or mild MR; mainstreamed typical classrooms )
Kamps, D.M., Leonard, B.R., Vernon, S., Dugan, E.P., Delquadri, J.C., Gershon, et al.(1992). Teaching social skills to students with autism to increase peer interactions in an integrated first-grade classroom.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 25(2), 281-288. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1992.25-281.
Student ages: 7.5, 7.9, 7.7 years
(NB-These students were full IQ or mild MR; mainstreamed typical classrooms )
Koegel, L.K., Harrower, J.K., & Koegel, R.L. (1999). Support for children with fevelopmental fisabilities in full inclusion classrooms through self-management. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(1), 26-34. DOI:10.1177/109830079900100104
Students of Early Elementary school age integrated into full inclusion classrooms through self-management
Koegel, L.K., Koegel, R.L., Hurley, C., & Frea, W.D. (1992). Improving social skills and disruptive behavior in children with autism through self-management. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(2), 341-353. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1992.25-341.
Student ages: 6.10, 11.1, 6.2, 11.1
Koegel, R. L., & Covert, A. (1972). The relationship of self-stimulation to learning in autistic children.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 5(4), 381-387. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1972.5-381.
Student ages: 7, 5, 7 years
Koegel, R.L, Dunlap, G., & Dyer, K. (1980). Intertrial interval duration and learning in autistic children.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13(1), 91-99. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1980.13-91.
Student ages: 8, 7, 11 years
Koegel, R.L, Dunlap, Richman, G.S., & Dyer, K. (1981). The use of specific orienting cues for teaching discrimination tasks. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 1(2), 187-198. doi:10.1016/0270-4684(81)90031-8
Koegel, R.L., Dyer, K, & Bell, L.K. (1987). The influence of child preferred activities on autistic children's social behavior.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20(3), 243-252. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1987.20-243.
Student ages: 4-13 years (10 students)
Koegel, R.L., & Egel, A.L. (1979). Motivating autistic children.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88(4), 418-425.
Student ages: 6.1, 11.11, 12.3
U.S. Library Holdings
Koegel, R.L., & Frea, W.D. (1993). Treatment of social behavior in autism through the modification of pivotal social skills.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26(3), 369-378. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1993.26-369.
Student ages 13, 16 years
Koegel, R. L., Firestone, P. B., Kramme, K. W., & Dunlap, G. (1974). Increasing spontaneous play by suppressing self-stimulation in autistic children.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7(4), 521-528. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1974.7-521.
Student ages: 8 and 6 years
Koegel, R.L, & Rincover, A., (1976). Some detrimental effects of using extra stimuli to guide learning in normal and autistic children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4, 59-71.
U.S. Library Holdings
Koegel, R.L, & Rincover, A., (1977). Research on the difference between generalization and maintenance in extra-therapy responding.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10(1), 1-12. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1977.10-1.
Student ages: 7.5, 9.0, 11.0 years
Koegel, R.L, Russo, D.C., & Rincover, A., (1977). Assessing and training teachers in the generalized use of behavior modification with autistic children.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10(2), 197-205. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1977.10-197.
Student ages: range 5-13 years (12 students)
Purpose of the study is test of behavior analytic practice in classroom setting and training of teachers
Koegel, R. L., & Schreibman, L. (1977). Teaching autistic children to respond to simultaneous multiple cues. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 24(2), 299-311.
U.S. Library Holdings
Koegel, R. L., Schreibman, L., Britten, K. R., Burke, J. C., & O'Neill, R. E. (1982). A comparison of parent training to direct child treatment. In R. L. Koegel, A. Rincover, & A. L. Egel (Eds.), Educating and understanding autistic children. San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press.
U.S. Library Holding
Koegel, R. L., Schreibman, L., Johnson, J., O'Neill, R. E., & Dunlap, G. (1984). Collateral effects of parent training on families with autistic children. In R. F. Dangel & R. A. Polster (Eds.), Parent training: Foundations of research and practice. New York: Guilford.
U.S. Library Holdings
Koegel, R.L., & Wilhelm, H. (1973). Selective responding to the components of multiple visual cues by autistic children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 15, 442-453.
U.S. Library Holdings
Krantz, P.J., & McClannahan, L.E. (1993). Teaching children with autism to initiate to peers: Effects of a script-fading procedure.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26(1), 121-132. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1993.26-121.
Student ages 12, 12, 12, 9 years
Kravits, T. R., Kamps, D. M., Kemmerer, K., & Potucek, J. (2002). Brief report: Increasing communication skills for an elementary-aged student with autism using the picture exchange communication system. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 32(3), 225-230. DOI:10.1023/A:1015457931788
Student age: 6 years
Lattimore, L.P., & Parsons, M.B. (2006). Enhancing job-site training of supported workers with autism: A reemphasis on simulation.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39(1), 91-102. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2006.154-04.
Client ages: 29, 30, 32, 40. Developmentally disabled--supported employment
Lattimore, L. P., Parsons, M. B., & Reid, D. H. (2003). Assessing preferred work among adult with autism beginning supported jobs: Identifications of constant and alternating task preferences. Behavioral Interventions, 18(3), 161-177. DOI: 10.1002/bin.138
LeBlanc, L. A., Miguel, C. F., Cummings, A. R., Goldsmith, T. R., & Carr, J. E. (2003). The effects of three stimulus-equivalence testing conditions on emergent U.S. geography relations of children diagnosed with autism. Behavioral Interventions, 18(4), 279-289. DOI: 10.1002/bin.144
Loe, J. (2001, May). The myth of early intervention: Doomed before kindergarten?.
FEAT Daily Newsletter.
Discussion of neurology and brain plasticity beyond those of the preschool years
Luce, S. C., Christian, W. P., Anderson, S. R., Troy, P. J., & Larsson, E. V., (1991). Development of a continuum of services for children and adults with autism and other severe behavior disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 13(1), 9-25. doi:10.1016/0891-4222(92)90037-7
ABSTRACT:The development of a 12-step continuum of services for individuals with autism is described. The operation and funding of outreach parent training; homebased early intervention; preschool, vocational, and adult intermediate care; and school consultation programs are outlined. The use and importance of evaluative data on both treatment outcome and staff skills are emphasized.
Matson, J. L., Benavidez, D.A., Compton, L.S., Paclawskyj, T., & Baglio, C. (1996).
Behavioral treatment of autistic persons: A review of research from 1980 to the present.
Research in Developmental Disabilities, 17(6), 433-465.
ABSTRACT:Studies evaluating behavioral treatment of autism from 1980 to the present were reviewed. Studies included were published in journal articles and utilized behavioral methodology. A total of 251 studies were included in the review. Each study was analyzed for target behaviors and behavioral techniques implemented. Target behaviors were divided into categories, which included aberrant behaviors, social skills, language, daily living skills, and academic skills. Behavioral techniques were classified as positive, negative, extinction, or combined. Results were presented for each category. Recent trends in the treatmen literature were also reviewed, and recommendations for future research were presented.
McClannahan, L.E., MacDuff, G.S., & Krantz, P.J. (2002). Behavior analysis and intervention for adults with autism. Behavior Modification, 26(1), 9-26. DOI: 10.1177/0145445502026001002
Discusses Adult programming
Abstract:This article describes a behavioral intervention program for adults with autism,...asserts that the curriculum should be just as comprehensive and evaluation criteria just as rigorous in programs for adults as in programs for children...the authors provide some data on the progress of 15 people who are now adults and whom they have known for 15 to 25 years. Finally, the authors argue that, because of the diversity of skills and skill deficits displayed by adults with autism, a program model that prevents â€śfalling through the cracksâ€ť must provide an array of optionsâ€”from training center to supported employment.
McDonald, M. E., & Hemmes, N. S. (2003). Increases in social initiation toward an adolescent with autism: Reciprocity effects. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24(6), 453-465. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2003.04.001
McGee, G.G., Krantz, P.J., Mason, D., & McClannahan, L.E. (1983). A modified incidental-teaching procedure for autistic youth: Acquisition and generalization of receptive object labels.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16(3), 329-338. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1983.16-329.
Student ages: 15.10 and 12.7 years
McGee, G.G., Krantz, P.J., & McClannahan, L.E. (1985). The facilitative effects of incidental teaching on preposition use by autistic children.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18(1), 17-31. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1985.18-17.
Student ages: 8, 6, 11 years
McMorrow, M.J. & Foxx, R.M. (1986). Some direct and generalized effects of replacing an autistic man's echolalia with correct responses to questions.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19(3), 289-297. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1986.19-289.
Client age: 21 years
Miller, N., & Neuringer, A. (2000). Reinforcing variability in adolescents with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(2), 151-165. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2000.33-151.
Newman, B., Buffington, D. M., & Hemmes, N. S. (1996). External and self-reinforcement used to increase the appropriate conversation of autistic teenagers. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 31, 304-309.
Newman, B., Buffington, D.M., O'Grady, M.A., McDonald, M.E., Poulson, C.L., & Hemmes, N.S. (1995). Self-management of schedule-following in three teenagers with autism. Behavioral Disorders, 20(3), 195-201.
Nordquist, V.M., & Wahler, R.G. (1973). Naturalistic treatment of an autistic child.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6(1), 79-87. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1973.6-79.
Student age 4 years: Study extended 1.5 years
Noriega, G. (2002, September). ABA for autistic children over six, adolescents, and adults
Unpublished. 9 pages.
Literature survey, comparison and reference list
Palmen, A., Didden, R., & Arts, M. (2008). Improving question asking in high-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effectiveness of small-group training. Autism, 12(1), 83-98. DOI: 10.1177/1362361307085265
Partington, J.W., Sundberg, M.L., Newhouse, L., & Spengler, S.M. (1994). Overcoming an autistic child's failure to acquire a tact repertoire. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(4), 733-734. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1994.27-733.
Student age: 6 years. NB--non-vocal student using sign language.
Pelios, L. V., MacDuff, G. S., & Axelrod, S. (2003). The effects of a treatment package in establishing independent academic work skills in children with autism. Education & Treatment of Children, 26, 1-21.
Perez-Gonzalez, L. A., & Williams, G. (2002). Multicomponent procedure to teach conditional discriminations to children with autism. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 107(4), 293-301. doi:10.1352/0895-8017(2002)107<0293:MPTTCD>2.0.CO;2
Perez-Gonzalez, L.A., & Williams, G. (2006). Comprehensive program for teaching skills to children with autism Psychology in Spain, 10, 37-51.
Student ages: 8.2, 5.1, 7.8 years
Pierce, K., & Schreibman, L., (1995). Increasing complex social behaviors in children with autism: Effects of peer-implemented pivotal response training.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(3), 285-296. doi:10.1901/jaba.1995.28-285.
Student ages: 10 and 10 years (2 students)
Reeve, S.A., Reeve, K.F., Townsend, D., & Poulson, C.L.(2007).Establishing a generalized repertoire of helping behavior in children with autism.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(1), 105-121. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2007.11-05.
Student ages: 5 and 6 years
Rehfeldt, R. A., Latimore, D., & Stromer, R. (2003). Observational learning and the formation of classes of reading skills by individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24(5), 333-358. doi:10.1016/S0891-4222(03)00059-3
Rincover A., & Koegel, R.L. (1975). Setting generality and stimulus control in autistic children.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8(3), 235-246. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1975.8-235.
Student ages: 6.5 - 13.5 years (10 students)
Rincover, A., & Koegel, R.L. (1974). Classroom treatment of autistic children II: Individualized instruction in a group.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 5(2), 113-126. doi: 10.1007/BF00913087
Student ages: 6.5-13.5 years (10 students, X=10.5 yrs.)
Rosenwasser, B., & Axelrod, S (2001). The contributions of applied behavior analysis to the education of people with autism.
Behavior Modification, 25(5), 671-677
Overview including the comments by Harris, et al., and McClannahan, et al. on past preschool effectiveness, and work by Koegel, et al. on integration in special education settings
Rosenwasser, B., & Axelrod, S. (2002). More contributions of applied behavior analysis to the education of people with autism. Behavior Modification, 26(1), 3-8.
Russo, D.C., & Koegel, R.L, (1977). A method for integrating an autistic child into a normal public school classroom.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10(4), 579-590. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1977.10-579.
Student age: 5 years
Study to integrate student into typical K-1st. grade
Sailor, W., & Taman, T. (1972). Stimulus factors in the training of prepositional usage in three autistic children.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 5(2), 183-190. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1972.5-183.
Student ages: 7, 5, 5 years
Sasso, G.M., Simpson, R.L., & Novak, C.G. (1985). Procedures for facilitating integration of autistic children in public school settings. Analysis and Intervention with Developmental Disabilities, 5(3), 233-246.
ERIC number EJ328127
ERIC ABSTRACT: Results revealed that regular class students who had received information about exceptionalities and participated in controlled experiences with autistic children had the most positive attitude and made the greatest number of positive behavioral initiations toward the handicapped subjects. Most frequently regular class students' behavioral initiations were aimed toward those autistic children who had received social skill training. (CL)
Schreibman L, & Lovaas, O.I., (1973). Overselective response to social stimuli by autistic children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1(2), 152-168. DOI:10.1007/BF00916110
Schreibman, L. (1975). Effects of within-stimulus and extra-stimulus prompting on discrimination learning in autistic children.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8(1), 91-112. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1975.8-91.
Student age: 8.6 to 14.0 years X=11.3 for 6 students
Schreibman, L., O'Neill, R.E., & Koegel, R.L. (1983). Behavioral training for siblings of autistic children.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16(2), 129-138. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1983.16-129.
Student ages: 8, 8, 5 years
Secan, K.E., Egel, A.L., & Tilley, C.S. (1989). Acquisition, generalization and maintenance of question-asking skills in autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22(2), 181-196. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1989.22-181.
Student ages: 9.1, 7.11, 5.7, 9.2 years.
NB: Previous programming with Distar I/early version of SRA Language for Learning described
Shabani, D.B., & Fisher, W.W. (2006). Stimulus fading and differential reinforcement for the treatment of needle phobia in a youth with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39(4), 449-452. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2006.30-05.
Student age: 18 years
Stevens-Long, J, & Rasmussen, M. (1974). The acquisition of simple and compound sentence structure in an autistic child.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7(3), 473-479. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1974.7-473.
Student age: 8 years
Williams, G., Queiroz Muller, A.B., & Olaya, Y., A data based longitudinal study on the emergence of a tact repertoire in a ten year old non-verbal child with autism.
Student age: 10 years
Case study with procedural description and graphical analysis
Williams, J.A., Koegel, R.L., & Egel, A.L. (1981). Response-reinforcer relationships and improved learning in autistic children.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 14(1), 53-60. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1981.14-53.
Student ages: 4.0, 4.5, 7.0 years
Other guides and articles related to transition and adult curriculum
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Eden Adult Series Curriculum
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teaching programs for self-care, domestics, vocational, and physical education, recreation and leisure.
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Audio and Video presentations
PLANNING AND SUPPORT FOR SUCCESSFUL EMPLOYMENT FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH ASD
2007 National Autism Conference
August 4â€“8, 2007
This session will cover strategies for achieving and maintaining employment, including job match, preparing the work site, behavioral supports, and job coaching and separation issues.
AUTISM AND THE STRUGGLES OF ADOLESCENCE
2007 National Autism Conference
August 4â€“8, 2007
The struggles of living with autism will be explored in relation to the challenges of adolescence, including puberty, self-care regulation, self-advocacy, relationship boundaries, and sexuality.